Thursday, October 12, 2017

Plant Foods Offer An Unexpected Protein Hit

Grain foods, including bread, can contribute a surprising amount of plant-based protein to our daily requirements.

While young Aussies are forking out on pricey supplements in a bid to build muscle and cut weight, new evidence has revealed an unexpected source of protein: the humble loaf of bread.

The new findings, from the Grains & Legumes Nutrition Council’s (GLNC) annual food category audit, revealed that close to one in every five loaves of wholemeal/whole grain bread assessed was considered a ‘good source’ of protein¹, boasting at least 10g per serve – the same amount found in a glass of milk or two boiled eggs.

Even white bread, often shunned as nutritionally inferior, came out on top with protein content; almost three quarters (73 per cent) of white sliced loaves were a ‘source’ of protein, with at least 5g per serve.

Felicity Curtain, Accredited Practising Dietitian and Nutrition Manager for GLNC, said this brings perspective to our nation’s protein fixation.

‘Australians are protein-obsessed, with at least 10 per cent of adults over 15 using sports supplements², but most of us can easily reach our daily needs through a range of whole foods, including bread!’

Curtain said grain foods like wheat, rye, barley and oats are naturally rich in plant-based protein, on top of other nutrients like vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and phytochemicals.

‘When combined with other good quality protein foods like meat, eggs, dairy foods or legumes, grains will get you well on your way to meeting your protein needs.’

While individual needs vary based on age, gender, body size and activity level, protein requirements range from between 0.75-1g of protein per kilogram of body weight; around 50g per day for a 65 kilogram woman.

So forget protein shakes, try these post-exercise alternatives that offer at least 15g protein per serve:

· Two slices of whole grain toast with nut butter and sliced banana
· A bowl of whole grain cereal with Greek yoghurt and berries
· A delicious smoothie made with milk, yoghurt, fruit and rolled oats
· A whole grain roll filled with lean ham, cheese and salad
· Whole grain crackers with cheese and hummus

Visit the GLNC Website for recipes, factsheets and up-to-date information on the latest evidence around grains and legumes.

References

  1. GLNC. 2017 Bread Audit. Unpublished.
  2. https://www.foodstandards.gov.au/publications/Documents/Sports%20Foods%20Quant%20Report.pdf  

Monday, September 25, 2017

Australians Are Falling Short on Cereal Fibre

by Eden Barrett,  Accredited Practising Dietitian and PhD candidate from the University of Wollongong 

When we think about the benefits of fibre, we typically think about its role in digestive health and staying regular. While this is certainly one of fibre’s great benefits, there are many more you may be less familiar with. For example, did you know that a diet high in fibre has also been found to protect against heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers (1,2,3). Additionally, fibre helps you to feel full eating fewer calories, which may explain why higher intakes of fibre are also associated with lower body weight (4).

What is particularly interesting is that these associations are often found to be strongest with high intakes of cereal fibre specifically (3,5,6,7), meaning the fibre that comes specifically from grain foods such as breads, pasta, rice and breakfast cereals.

To understand how much cereal fibre Australians are currently eating, we recently conducted some research with the University of Wollongong to develop a database of more than 1,900 foods containing cereal fibre, expanding on the current AUSNUT 2011-13 food composition database. This database allowed us to estimate how much cereal fibre Australians are getting through the foods they eat. In addition, we were also able to determine the main foods which were contributing to cereal fibre intake as well as how the amount of cereal fibre a person is eating may be related to their likelihood of meeting daily total fibre targets.

On average, Australian adults ate 6.4g of cereal fibre each day, while Australian children and adolescents ate 6.2g each day (8). This is the equivalent of about 2-3 slices of whole grain bread or 1 cup of wholemeal pasta. The main food items contributing cereal fibre within the Australian diets were:

  • Breads and bread rolls (29% of adult intake and 27% of child intake)
  • Ready to eat breakfast cereals and porridge (29% of adult intake and 22% of child intake)
  • Cereal-based mixed dishes (e.g. spaghetti bolognaise or risotto) (13% of adult intake and 16% of child intake).
Australians who ate the most cereal fibre were not only eating more cereal foods in general but were also choosing higher-fibre varieties, such as whole grain breads and breakfast cereals, porridge, whole wheat pasta and bran-based products.

Interestingly, those who ate the most cereal fibre also ate the most total dietary fibre and were more likely to meet the recommended daily target for dietary fibre (30g/day for men and 25g/day for women):

  • Men with diets highest in cereal fibre were 4.4 times more likely to meet the recommended target for total dietary fibre.
  • Women with diets highest in cereal fibre were 3.1 times more likely to meet the target for total fibre.
With that in mind, how much cereal fibre should you be eating, and how can you increase your intake? Within Australia, there is no guideline on how much cereal fibre to eat. However, the Australian Dietary Guidelines suggest adults should aim for four to six serves of grain foods each day and we should aim to choose whole grain, high-fibre options at least half of the time.

While different grains differ in the amount of fibre they provide, opting for whole grain cereal foods is a good way to increase your cereal fibre intake. Importantly, whole grain foods also contain other important nutrients such as magnesium and iron, as well as many B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and folate).

There are many ways to add whole grains in to your diet at every meal or snack. Here are just a few simple ideas to get you started:

  • Use wholemeal or whole grain bread for your sandwich at lunch
  • Go for plain popcorn or whole grain crackers as a high fibre snack
  • Try porridge in the colder months or muesli in Summer as an easy breakfast option
  • Give wholemeal pita breads a go for healthy homemade pizzas
  • Substitute regular flour for oat flour when baking muffins or making pancakes
  • Try wholemeal pasta or brown rice to boost the fibre content of your favourite family dinners
And remember, even small changes can have big benefits for your health. Just starting with one of these simple swaps to a higher fibre, whole grain option will help to boost your cereal fibre intake and contribute to a healthier you!

References

1 Yao, B. D., H. Fang, W. H. Xu, Y. J. Yan, H. L. Xu, Y. N. Liu, M. Mo, H. Zhang and Y. P. Zhao (2014). "Dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a dose-response analysis of prospective studies." European Journal of Epidemiology 29(2): 79-88.
2 Wu, Y. H., Y. F. Qian, Y. W. Pan, P. W. Li, J. Yang, X. H. Ye and G. Xu (2015). "Association between dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis." Clinical Nutrition 34(4): 603-611.
3. Aune, D., D. S. Chan, R. Lau, R. Vieira, D. C. Greenwood, E. Kampman and T. Norat (2011). "Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies." BMJ 343: d6617.
4 Du, H., H. C. van der A Dl Fau - Boshuizen, N. G. Boshuizen Hc Fau - Forouhi, N. J. Forouhi Ng Fau - Wareham, J. Wareham Nj Fau - Halkjaer, A. Halkjaer J Fau - Tjonneland, K. Tjonneland A Fau - Overvad, M. U. Overvad K Fau - Jakobsen, H. Jakobsen Mu Fau - Boeing, B. Boeing H Fau - Buijsse, G. Buijsse B Fau - Masala, D. Masala G Fau - Palli, T. I. A. Palli D Fau - Sorensen, W. H. M. Sorensen Ti Fau - Saris, E. J. M. Saris Wh Fau - Feskens and E. J. Feskens "Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women." (1938-3207 (Electronic)).
5 Hajishafiee, M., P. Saneei, S. Benisi-Kohansal and A. Esmaillzadeh (2016). "Cereal fibre intake and risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, cancer and inflammatory diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies." Br J Nutr 116(2): 343-352.
6. Schulze, M. B., M. Schulz, C. Heidemann, A. Schienkiewitz, K. Hoffmann and H. Boeing (2007). "Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes - A prospective study and meta-analysis." Archives of Internal Medicine 167(9): 956-965.
7. Koh-Banerjee, M. F., M. Franz, L. Sampson, S. Liu, D. R. Jacobs, Jr., D. Spiegelman, W. C. Willett and E. Rimm (2004). "Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men." Am J Clin Nutr 80(5): 1237-1245.

8. Barrett, E. M, Probst, Y. C & Beck, E. J (2017). “Creation of a database for the estimation of cereal fibre intake”. Submitted to Journal of Food Composition and Analysis.

Monday, July 31, 2017

Declaration of Lupin as an Allergen

On the 25th of May 2017 the Australia New Zealand Foods Standard Code added lupin to the list of allergens that must be declared on food packaging. This amendment to Standard 1.2.3 means that it is now mandatory for lupin to be declared when it is present as an ingredient, compound ingredient, additive or processing aid.

Lupin is a type of legume (like kidney beans or lentils) which is available in several formats including flakes, flour and whole beans and can be incorporated into grain foods such as bread, breakfast cereal or pasta. The decision to identify lupin as an allergen on food packaging will make it easier for people with a lupin allergy to identify and avoid foods containing lupin and enjoy those that are lupin free.

This amendment to the Food Standards Code occurs with a 12 month transition period, meaning that the food industry will have until 26 May 2018 to update product information and declarations. All products, new and existing, will be required to comply with this requirement. For more information, click here.


Thursday, July 27, 2017

Increasing Legume Intake Among Australians

by Courtney Rose-Davis, APD, PhD Candidate

These days, we’re seeing more and more research suggesting that legumes possess significant health benefits, different to that of other food groups. Studies suggest that consuming legumes 4 times per week, compared to only once, reduces risk of coronary heart disease [1,2]. When legumes are added to our diet, levels of total and LDL cholesterol are lowered [3]. Legumes, including chickpeas, lentils, kidney, fava and black beans, amongst others, are a key feature of the Mediterranean diet, which is predominantly eaten by people living coastally in Southern Europe [4]. This balanced diet has been proven to lower our risk of heart disease and diabetes. Although just one part of this dietary pattern, legumes provide important nutrients including protein, fibre and other minerals, especially as the Mediterranean diet is low in meat. In terms of health benefits, one study showed that the Mediterranean diet would only be 90% as effective if legumes were excluded [5]. 

In Australia the story is very different, where adults eat very few legumes. Data from the most recent National Nutrition Survey suggests legume intake is only 20 g/week for males, and 16 g/week for females [6]. The health benefits of following a Mediterranean diet with legumes could be enormous; however this previously hadn’t been well studied. So we conducted a research trial where older Australians (aged >64 years) were asked to follow a Mediterranean diet for 6 months. Around 80 participants were asked to consume at least 3 servings of legumes per week, at a serving size of 75 g or half a cup (225 g/week). Three servings of legumes were provided to participants as canned legumes, to make this easier for them. The participants had their diets analysed before they commenced the study and median legume intake was 0 grams/week, meaning at least half the study participants were eating no legumes at all. The average intake however was 140g/week, which was quite high compared with national data, however still less than half the amount needed to provide health benefits.

Surprisingly, over the course of the study, legume intake increased to an average of 340g/week, with the median increasing from 0 to 231 g/week. Anecdotally, participants said they found legumes not only tasty, but versatile and useful when making filling lunches and salads. Recipes and instructions to incorporate legumes were provided, such as making legume patties and dips, adding legumes to soups, casseroles and salads and even replacing some meat with legumes.

It’s difficult to say with certainty which of these factors contributed to the legume increase, however, it appears that with some instruction and encouragement, older Australians could greatly increase their intake and enjoy legumes more often. The easy provision of legumes might have played a large role, although participants clearly went and bought their own on top of our provisions suggesting that participants genuinely enjoyed this part of their diet. It's most likely that several factors contributed, including providing them for free, provision of innovative recipes, additional suggestions on how to incorporate them in their daily diet, but most importantly - the enjoyment factor. Legume intake likely promoted the intake of other healthful dietary components too, like olive oil and vegetables, as these are often consumed together.

The potential health benefits of such a change are exciting! Legumes on their own have been associated with considerable health benefits, and even more so when being consumed as part of the Mediterranean diet. Our encouraging results suggest that given the right resources, such as recipe inspiration and handy tips, most people can become a legume fan. Here are our easy tips to help you enjoy legumes more frequently:

- If using canned legumes, make sure you rinse them well before using – this can help reduce the sodium content by up to 40%.

- If using dried legumes, soak and cook in large batches and freeze in individual portions for quick and easy additions to midweek meals.

- Use lentils or black beans as a substitute for mincemeat – mix into patties, meatballs, spaghetti bolognaise and taco mince.

- Add to salads for a filling protein and fibre hit.

- Add to soups and casseroles to bulk out.

- Mix in with pasta dishes - this works especially well with lentils and chickpeas.

- Make nachos with kidney beans or black beans.

- Add mixed legumes to tomato, onion and canned fish and drizzle with olive oil  and lemon juice for a delicious, Mediterranean salad.


 References


Thursday, July 20, 2017

What’s trending in grains?

By Alexandra Locke

After a 30% drop in grains consumption in 2014 (1) and plenty of talk about the benefits of the paleo, diet, the dangers of gluten and the plus side to cutting carbs, we’re now seeing a shift in media perspective,  with a much  more positive outlook for grains overall! With the right conditions, it’s high time to start promoting the benefits of grains again and get consumers back on board.

But where do the opportunities lie? There are three key trends where we see grains leading the charge in innovation…

Digestive Wellness

More than ever before, consumers are paying attention to how a specific food can make them feel, so they’re consciously looking for the benefits that certain foods can provide. What’s more, they want to feel assured that they’re promoting their digestive health and overall wellness when making food choices – these consumers will pay a premium for products which taste good and offer functional digestive benefits.

And this is where grains, whole grains specifically, come in – whole grains exhibit an impressive nutritional profile, providing dietary fibre, protein and are a healthy source of carbohydrate , also contributing nutrients like magnesium, folate and iron to our diets. Fibre intake is directly related to our digestive health so the opportunities for whole grain innovation in this category are big!
Good Carbs, Bad Carbs

Over the past year or so we've increasingly seen consumers understanding that there are ‘good’ and ‘bad’ carbs, with an emphasis on the importance of choosing the most healthful carbohydrate format. Both the media and consumers are becoming more aware that carbohydrates are essential as part of a healthy balanced diet, focusing on crowding out refined and processed carbohydrates by increasing intake of whole grains, wholemeal bread and pseudo-grains, as well as eating more ‘alternative’ forms of carbohydrates, think sweet potato toasts and zucchini noodles.

With ‘healthier’ forms of traditionally carbohydrate heavy foods now on the rise, we’re seeing significant movement towards alternatives such as ancient grains, legumes flours and even substitution of flour with pureed veg! But again, with consumer awareness of whole grains on the rise, grains can still play a significant part in the healthful innovation of this category.
Snackification

And finally, the rise of snackification is promoting massive innovation. The Australian snacking market is now worth more than $2 billion and climbing fast (2) and Australians are now snacking four times as much as 10 years ago.

And it would appear that anything goes with this trend, any food can be engineered to be thought of as a snack, any time of day is open to snackification and there are no limits on product development - almost any ingredient that can be dried, pureed, shaped, extruded or frozen is open to innovation. Whilst grains traditionally dominated this category, we’re still seeing big opportunities for grain foods moving forward. More food than ever is being consumed on-the-go, especially at breakfast and manufacturers are innovating with grains to make healthy choices more convenient for today’s busy lifestyles.

Whilst these trends clearly present big opportunities for manufacturers and retailers, there are also significant opportunities for those at the very beginning of the supply chain – for the growers and the farmers.

These mega-trends have paved the way for several smaller trends within the grains space…

Ancient Grains 

Quinoa is now found on nearly every trendy café menu in some form or another with this group of grains being seen as untainted and intrinsically healthy. Perhaps their alternative title of pseudo-grains has helped with the allure, but this presents opportunities for diversification on farm and many young farmers are doing just that. And perhaps fonio is the next big ancient grain?

Back to Basics with Oats 

This humble grain has seen a huge resurgence in popularity in recent years and manufacturers have already taken advantage of this opportunity. Now’s the time for growers to reap the rewards of increased demand for this crop and add value in the form of exclusivity… think single origin oats, exotic flavours and on-the-go formats.

Provenance 

Consumers want to connect with their food more than ever, so now is the time for growers to tell their story. With social media at our fingertips and whole communities of consumers ready and waiting, the desire to understand where our food comes from is strong. And consumers are actively seeking out those products with a story behind them.

Now is the time to connect with consumers, tell them the story of how their product got from farm to store and enrich them with the knowledge of understanding where their food comes from. We can’t leave it just to the marketers and manufacturers to promote this category anymore – we all need to be involved with spreading the story and helping to bring back the belief in grains!


References

1. GLNC. 2017. Consumption & Attitudes Study. Unpublished.
2. Innova Market Insights Report. 2016

Monday, May 22, 2017

An Ingrained Truth: Pre-Exercise Fuelling & Post-Exercise Recovery Foods for Performance

By Toni L Franklin

Accredited Practising Dietitian, Dietitians Association of Australia, Provisional Sports Dietitian, Sport Dietitians Australia


The desire to seek out new or peculiar foods to add to our arsenal of table talk, or ‘foodstagram’ posts, is born out of natural human curiosity. But is there any grain of truth in the notion that we should be seeking out exclusive ancient grains to fuel our exercise training and performances?

Fuelling our bodies before exercise and restoring nutrition after exercise is a fundamental component of Sport Nutrition. Why?

Before exercise, the carbohydrate in food tops up our liver and muscle glycogen stores, especially if we are training first thing in the morning after an overnight fast. Eating before exercise also helps to avoid that niggling hungry feeling and help us get the most out of our training. Taking care to eat foods that don’t cause gastrointestinal upset should also be at the forefront of your food choices (1,2). After exercise, food helps you refuel in preparation for subsequent exercise sessions, promotes muscle repair and growth, boosts adaptation that occurs as a result of training and supports your immune function (3,4). The combination of appropriate nutritious foods and exercise works synergistically to help you achieve your goals.

Traditional and ancient grains battle it out on the playing field. Which is best?

Grains are a nutritious source of carbohydrate, fibre and micronutrients. A good comparison of the nutrient composition of different grains is found in the article “What’s all the fuss about trendy grains?” Grains also contain some protein, a fact that is commonly overlooked. Previous studies have investigated animal protein sources with a high amount of an amino acid called leucine and found around 20g stimulates muscle protein synthesis during recovery from exercise. However, we have recently seen an increasing interest in investigating plant sources of protein to support muscle protein synthesis, perhaps through fortification of leucine or by combining plant based proteins such as grains with complementary amino acid profiles (5).

So do both the hipster ancient grains and the traditional grandparent grains provide appropriate fuel for exercise? 

 The answer is yes. However, at this point, it’s important to reveal another essential principle of sports nutrition - using familiar foods with a known tolerance is always encouraged for key training sessions or competition. Most runners would not wear a brand new, untested pair of running shoes for a marathon race unless they are invincible to injury, blisters and indifferent about performance. If an ancient grain buckwheat, quinoa and chia acai bowl is what you normally eat and tolerate before exercise, go forth and conquer. But a good old-fashioned porridge or some whole grain toast with banana and honey is equally effective and possibly more tolerable on the gut if this is what you are used to eating. There is also something to be said about the nostalgic calming effect that familiar foods can have on settling rattled nerves before a big event. The crux of the matter is that a varied diet remains central to a healthy lifestyle. Both traditional and ancient grains should be friends not foes and there is no grain more ‘superior’ than another.

Key points for fuelling and recovery 

- Have your pre-exercise meal 3-4 hours before exercise if you struggle with gastrointestinal discomfort during exercise. This is more crucial for higher intensity weight bearing sports such as footy and running or sports where your stomach will be jostled about, such as gymnastics or boxing. If you are having a smaller snack this can be eaten 1 or 2 hours before the event.

- Good pre-exercise meals or snacks include: eggs and tomato on rye toast, a whole grain sandwich or wrap with some lean protein and salad, wholemeal raisin toast or oats with yoghurt and fruit.

- Try to have some post-exercise recovery nutrition with a combination of carbohydrates and protein as soon as possible after your event.

- Good recovery nutrition meals or snacks include: whole grain crackers and cheese or nut butter, wholemeal pasta and vegetable salad, tabbouleh, wholemeal spaghetti and meatballs, homemade muesli bar with oats or dried fruit and seeds.

And if you’re ever unsure about what’s best for YOU, contact an Accredited Sports Dietitian for your tailored nutrition plan to help you be your best.

Toni Franklin is a Dietitian with a background in clinical and sport nutrition. For more information about how you can use nutrition to improve your sport performance, please contact a member of Sport Dietitians Australia (SDA), Australia’s peak professional body and credible source of sport nutrition information. Visit www.sportsdietitians.com.au for more information.



References

1. SDA Sports Dietitians Australia. Factsheets: Eating & Drinking before exercise. Retrieved from: https://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/factsheets/fuelling-recovery/eating-drinking-sport/

2. Australian Sports Commission (2009). Eating before exercise. Retrieved from: http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/sports_nutrition/fact_sheets/eating_before_exercise

3. SDA Sports Dietitians Australia. Factsheets: Recovery Nutrition. Retrieved from: https://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/factsheets/fuelling-recovery/recovery-nutrition/

4. Australian Sports Commission (2009). Recovery nutrition. Retrieved from: http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/sports_nutrition/fact_sheets/recovery_nutrition

5. Witard, O.C., Wardle, S.L., Macnaughton, L.S., Hodgson, A.B., Tipton, K.D. (2016). Protein considerations for optimising skeletal muscle mass in healthy young and older adults. Nutrients, 23;8(181) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4848650/

Carbohydrates & Fertility: An Update On the Latest Research

By Melanie McGrice, AdvAPD

One in six Australian couples struggle to conceive [i] and the psychological, physical and emotional impacts of infertility can be overwhelming.  As one woman struggling with fertility recently wrote on her Instagram feed “I am angry.  Angry at my friends and family who managed to have children easily, angry at the doctor who told me that I had nothing to worry about, and mostly, angry at myself for all of the croissants that I’ve eaten over the years.” 

Pre-conception weight is one of the major risk factors for fertility outcomes and it is well accepted that weight loss improves fertility in overweight and obese women [ii]. In fact, research suggests that women who have a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30kg/m2 often have natural menstrual cycle disruptions at a rate of almost three times higher than women of a healthy weight [ii]

Although research shows that low carbohydrate diets are no better for long term weight loss than other energy restricted diets (and in fact, may be worse as they are often more difficult to ensure nutritional integrity, and are often more difficult to maintain), low carbohydrate diets are a popular choice for rapid weight loss [iii].  Considering the urgent weight loss requirements for many women (particularly in their late 30’s and early 40’s) wanting to conceive, we wanted to investigate the impact of low carbohydrate diets for conception.

Overall, the research shows that lower carbohydrate diets have a positive effect on reproductive hormones, ovulation rates and pregnancy rates than standard diets in women who are overweight or obese. However, before adopting a low carbohydrate diet there’s a few important factors to keep in mind….

1.      Firstly, the research does not yet confirm how low in carbohydrates the diet should be.  Our research was based on diets which were less than 45% carbohydrates so that we could include Very Low Energy Diet studies (also known as intensive phase meal replacements where all meals are replaced with meal replacements).  However, although lower than usual, 45% carbohydrates is not ketogenic for most people.

2    There’s one small prospective study which used meal replacements (which didn’t meet the criteria for inclusion into our systematic review), that actually reduced the number of eggs available for fertilisation [iv]!  This provides a warning that low carbohydrate diets are not suitable for everyone wanting to optimise their fertility.  One possible alternative may be a low carbohydrate diet for short term weight loss, followed by a period of slight weight regain.  This practice, known as “flushing” is often used to improve the fertility of farm animals [v]. A pattern of a period of weight loss, followed by a period of weight regain has also been found to demonstrate a positive impact on reproduction in women [v].  

      Consequently, I believe that a low carbohydrate diet should only be utilised for a short period of time to optimise menstrual cyclicity and fertility hormones, followed by a period of renourishment.

3.      Furthermore, optimal nutrition is essential in the lead up to pregnancy. Wholegrains are some of the best sources of key fertility nutrients such as iodine and folate.  Women following a low carbohydrate diet without meeting all their nutritional requirements could do more harm than good, so it’s essential to seek expert advice from an Accredited Practising Dietitian when considering a change in diet at any life stage. 

      The takeouts here are that low carbohydrate diets are clearly not suitable for everyone looking to lose weight in order to increase their fertility. However, a low carbohydrate diet may be a suitable option for some women who would benefit from losing weight prior to conception. As such it's important to always seek expert advice from a qualified nutrition professional, before embarking on any dietary changes.

To see the review or for further information, go to www.melaniemcgrice.com.au/research

References

[i] http://www.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/womens-health-policy-toc~womens-health-policy-experiences~womens-health-policy-experiences-reproductive~womens-health-policy-experiences-reproductive-maternal~womens-health-policy-experiences-reproductive-maternal-fert

[ii] Sim, K.A.; Partridge, S.R.; Sainsbury, A. Does weight loss in overweight or obese women improve fertility treatment outcomes? A systematic review. Obes. Rev. 2014, 15, 839–850.

[iii] http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/1/23.short

[iv] Tsagareli, V.; Noakes, M.; Norman, R.J. Effect of a very-low-calorie diet on in vitro fertilization outcomes. Fertil. Steril. 2006, 86, 227–229.

[v] Butler, S.T. Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems. Animal 2014, 8, 15–26.